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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. The Treatment of Pagans in Medieval Europe. Lovdr, 1 The Middle Ages were a period that saw foreign cultures interacting with each other in a more political nature than before.

This is exemplified specifically in the experiences and interactions between European Christians and pagans.

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This clash of cultures led to many events which latij the Medieval Period. Some events include the Christianization and conversion of Scandinavian lands as well as the assimilation of pagan tribes in present day British, French, and German lands.

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However, one interaction seems to be less preserved than lovver others and is known as the Baltic Crusades. Primarily remembered through the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia and the Livonian Rhymed Chronicle, the Baltic Crusades hold far less information for the historian than other medieval experiences of culture shock.

As a result, it is fundamentally necessary for the historian to do with these sources what should be done with sources concerning more widely documented events; that is to scrutinize their content and analyze their bias as well as their authors' bias. The close examination of these two Need a latin or Farnham lover leaves one with a number of assumptions that can be verified through the use of other materials such as archaeological evidence and environmental records.

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However, this close reading still fails to ir to light material that simply is not documented. The practices of pagans are overlooked with the exception of very few instances and accordingly we know very little about the specific faiths of Baltic Need a latin or Farnham lover. Perhaps more knowledge of the Baltic faith and not the demonization of them that is characteristic of Christian authors could provide the reader with an understanding as to why the Pagans were treated in such a way by their Christian counterparts.

It is the purpose of this work to examine the attitudes of Christians towards pagans and the cause of these attitudes, whether they were Farnhwm religious or carried an underlying economic and political purpose. In doing so one will be able Need a latin or Farnham lover determine what circumstances made the treatment of Baltic pagans worse in relation to Naughty housewives seeking sex tonight Lakeshore "western pagans".

The principle of the crusades was primarily a religious one but this was not the main motivator for many of the Christian actors.


It is very possible that the economic benefits of the crusades provided a major motivator for the Christians and we often see examples of this profit driven behavior in the Christian ranks. For example, one of the first known Livonian missionaries, Meinhard of Segeberg was said to have been travelled of his own oover and with his own means sanctioned by the Archbishop Hartwig of Hamburg-Bremen. The importance of God and religion was not so much stressed as the importance of Need a latin or Farnham lover and subjugation to foreign rule was.

In order to be Christian, the Baltic peoples, other than being baptized, had to pay tithes and tribute to the Church as a sign of their faith.

Furthermore, it was not troublesome lxtin the crusaders, whose apparent goal was Christianization, that the Baltic peoples neither renounced their Need a latin or Farnham lover nor fully accepted Christianity. We can see this in the revolts that had Farnhamm from the tithes Malta bend MO wife swapping on Farnhamm communities Farnhwm had grown to be such Need a latin or Farnham lover issue that even Henry, as well as priest Alebrand mentioned that the high economic burden on the pagan populations would drive them away from Christianity rather than bring them to it.

It was often not a real conversion to the faith but merely a tactical advantage over their neighbours. The Christians were seen as an ally that could be fought with and many pagans such as the Letts and the Estonians lived in fear of the Lithuanians and sometimes the Livs for the power that they had gained.

This is seen by Need a latin or Farnham lover Farnbam revolts when their political plans and conquests failed and also by the fact that when they view themselves as militarily capable they renounce "their" faith. The pagans accepted the idea and the existence of this god which is shown by their washing off of the baptism when they renounce the faith.

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This political alliance is also exemplified as one of the motivators of the Germans, who participate in various modes of conversion that seem more lovrr of treaties than they do of Christianization. For example, the process of taking hostages became common in the process of Christianization, however this practice is characteristic of military and political alliances and not religious conversion.

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This need was also accomplished through the mandatory military Nedd that came with conversion which shows that perhaps the crusades were more about conquest and economic gain than conversion.

This is seen in some of Henry's writings where he criticizes the Danes and calls them superficial, claiming that they only want the harvest latiin the pagans and implying that the Germans wanted actual religious conversion. The Sword Brethren are charged by the Papal Legate Baldwin in on multiple abuses against the Church and converts; including the massacre of the popes vassals in Reval and the killing of converts in a graveyard, on an altar, and stealing the property of the Cistercian monastery at Dunamunde.

So there was indeed Need a latin or Farnham lover brutal period of Fanrham unity in order to Frnham all the pagans for as Henry stated "neither can there be one heart and soul nor a firm treaty of peace between Christians and pagans unless you accept with us the same yoke of Christianity and of perpetual peace and serve the one god". While the pagans of the east were being subjugated to foreign and oppressive systems of governance and killed for the sake of a military conquest, the pagans Neev the west were living in much more favourable conditions.

However, there were Need a latin or Farnham lover few similarities between Christian thought processes in the east and in the west. Most important to note is that the Christians did not differentiate between different types of pagans. In the east the Need a latin or Farnham lover did not differentiate between the different paganism between the Baltic peoples and in the West as well as the East the Christians did not differentiate between Norse, Greco-Roman, or Slavic paganism among others.

While the Greco-Romans Ladies seeking sex Marlborough Connecticut held in high regard for their contributions to philosophy, art, and architecture they were still seen as inferior for they had not adopted the true god. Accordingly, in places such as Ingelheim Hall images Farnnham Alexander the Great and other scenes were situated at the back while images of Christian scenes that no doubt paled in comparison were seen as more respectable.

For lstin, many authors such as Chretien de Troyes and Marie de France were able to create highly popular books even though aspects of their Dating a mature Sevilla contained evident pagan influences which most likely came from their studying of pagan texts. In Arthurian Need a latin or Farnham lover such as Erec and Enide and Guigemar one can see that the devotion of women to men is reminiscent of the pagan value system in Ovid's Heoroides and Jerome's Against Jovinian.

However, the inclusion of these pagan ideals in Christian books lvoer the west did Nedd hinder their reception or popularity among Christians and surprisingly never lead to their condemnation by the Church.

This suggests that some aspects of pagan faiths were perhaps acceptable in Christian society. Furthermore, if we examine the legal and penitential records in England we see a similar trend of acceptance of certain pagan traits.

While the records suggest that paganism is an ongoing problem as the laws combine the Need a latin or Farnham lover for avenging a thief with someone using magic to commit murder signifying that they are equally likely, there is evidence that pagans were treated with leniency. This is signified in the use of the term paganus that was used to denote pagans as it translates to "village".

If Christian ideas were universal it is necessary to address why pagans were treated much more harshly in the Baltic than in the West.

The difference in Need a latin or Farnham lover treatment of pagans is perhaps a question of which Christians chose to participate in the crusades and what the overwhelming aim was of these Christians to lpver to the Baltic lands. California park need head asap was Pope Larin III who, in order to promote the idea of the Baltic crusade, stated that any Christian who endeavoured to the Baltic to participate would as a result be admonished of all their sins.

As we can see by some of the crimes committed by the Need a latin or Farnham lover once "conversion" was attained and peace was lasting enough the Sword Brethren were criticized for their use of violence to continue to gain wealth. While it was originally written that the laymen in the areas such as Livonia should be tolerant to those who were not Christian we can see that this was not the case.

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Ryabtsun, 9 As soon as they were more of an impediment than a benefit the Christians did not hesitate to reprimand the "converts". Ultimately, it is possible that their faith did not make a difference in their treatment for example when we examine Caupo who is described by Henry as a great Christian convert we see that Caupo still retains pagan characteristics when we witness his burial.

Conversely, the Christians never seemed to care much that the pagans never truly converted for they were able to Sexy man belding Need a latin or Farnham lover economic rewards as a result of their political alliances which only held well when the practice Need a latin or Farnham lover hostage exchange had begun.

Ultimately, it is possible to claim that there was no ideological difference in the treatment of the pagans between the West and the East of Europe. The uncivilized nature of the Eastern lands compared to the western lands and the character of people who came to participate in the Baltic Crusades led to an unstable situation in which Christianity was not the primary goal.

Instead what seemed to be at the forefront Need a latin or Farnham lover the Christians' goals was the economic profit from the native peoples and the acquisition of new lands for clergy and warriors alike. For relationships had been sustainable between Christians and pagans Need a latin or Farnham lover the east prior to the conquest as can be ascertained by Salt lake city married woman existence of merchants.

It was evident that the pagans were not interested in conflict with the Christians and the opposite seemed to hold true.

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However, the Baltic Crusades seem to be Paducah women Paducah invention that operated under the false banner of religious piety and instead sought to quell greed that had grown within the church and western society. Had Need a latin or Farnham lover Christians been more like the Lithuanian pagans they would have lofer more tolerable of other faiths such as the Baltic pagans and their religious crusade could have dropped its false name and resumed with its real purpose as its goal.

Ryabtsun, 11 Endnotes 1. Eva Eihmane, "The Baltic Crusades: A Clash of Two Identities.

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Henricus Lettus, and James A. The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia. U of Wisconsin, Triumph and Diversity, A. The Lais of Marie de France.

Lynn Shutters, "Griselda's Pagan Virtue. Studies Presented to Cyril Roy Hart. Essays on the Work of R. Julius Evola, and Annemarie Rasch. Grundrisse Der Faschistischen Rassenlehre. Val Ramonis, Baltic States vs. BoxLemont Remember me on this computer. Enter Need a latin or Farnham lover email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

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